PENGARUH BEBAN KERJA MENTAL DAN FISIK TERHADAP PERILAKU KESELAMATAN PADA KARYAWAN YANG BEKERJA DI KONSTRUKSI

Penulis Hana Silvia Dwi P
Publisher [Yogyakarta] : Universitas Gadjah Mada, 2018

Sari

Program keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja sangat penting bagi industri konstruksi karena industri tersebut mempunyai kondisi kerja yang berisiko tinggi menimbulkan kecelakaan kerja. Di Yogyakarta, keselamatan kerja di bidang konstruksi bangunan tidak terpantau sementara para pekerja mendapat upah kecil dengan jam kerja yang panjang menimbulkan beban kerja yang tinggi bagi pekerja. Kecelakaan di konstruksi disebabkan oleh perilaku keselamatan. Beban kerja mental dan beban kerja fisik diduga menjadi faktor yang mempengaruhi perilaku keselamatan tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji hubungan antara beban kerja mental dan beban kerja fisik dengan perilaku keselamatan karyawan yang bekerja di proyek konstruksi. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan melibatkan 130 orang. Metode pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan metode purposive sampling. Penelitian dilakukan dengan survei menggunakan kuesioner. Kuesioner dikembangkan sebagai instrumen penelitian yang diadopsi dari beberapa penelitian terdahulu. Kuesioner telah diterjemahkan dengan metode back translation dan diuji melalui pilot study sebelum disebarkan kepada responden. Variabel bebas dalam penelitian ini berupa umur, persepsi keselamatan dan kondisi lingkungan kerja. Variabel terikat dalam penelitian ini adalah perilaku keselamatan dan variabel mediasi dalam penelitian ini adalah beban kerja mental. Variabel perancu dalam penelitian ini adalah beban kerja fisik. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan menggunakan SEM PLS. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa beban kerja mental tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap perilaku keselamatan karyawan konstruksi. Beban kerja fisik berpengaruh signifikan dan negatif terhadap perilaku keselamatan karyawan konstruksi. Semakin besar beban kerja fisik yang dimiliki karyawan maka membuat perilaku keselamatan karyawan menajdi semakin rendah. Persepsi keselamatan dapat berpengaruh signifikan dan positif terhadap perilaku keselamatan karyawan konstruksi. Semakin besar persepsi keselamatan yang dimiliki karyawan maka membuat karyawan memiliki perilaku keselamatan yang semakin besar. Umur dan kondisi lingkungan tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap perilaku keselamatan karyawan konstruksi. Umur, persepsi keselamatan dan kondisi lingkungan tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap beban kerja fisik. Beban kerja mental tidak memediasi hubungan antara umur dengan perilaku keselamatan karyawan konstruksi. Beban kerja mental tidak memediasi hubungan antara persepsi keselamatan dengan perilaku keselamatan karyawan konstruksi. Beban kerja mental tidak memediasi hubungan antara kondisi lingkungan dengan perilaku keselamatan karyawan konstruksi. Maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa karyawan konstruksi bangunan tidak dipengaruhi oleh beban kerja mental tetapi dipengaruhi oleh beban kerja fisik. Kata kunci: Beban kerja mental, beban kerja fisik, konstruksi, perilaku keselamatan

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